International Forum on Christian Higher Education: Measuring Matters Of The Heart
This was the first of Dr. Willard's three presentations at the Council of Christian Colleges and Universities' International Forum on Christian Higher Education. The overarching theme of all his presentations was "Realism About Christian Character Formation in the College Years," and the complete title of this session was “Measuring Matters of the Heart: Spiritual Formation in the Age of Accountability."
The basic problem of character formation today, whether in the school or elsewhere, is the lack of a clear and convincing body of knowledge about what moral worth and attainment is in the individual, and how it can be achieved.
We need to know that there is something called moral worth, that some people achieve it and others do not, that it is real and of great value in itself and in terms of its consequences, and what human life is like with and without it. We will state that moral worth in the individual is a matter of a settled disposition of will and character to advance the various human goods under one’s influence, in a way that respects their relative importance and the degree to which the individual’s actions can make a significant difference. This is loving one’s neighbor as oneself. We will talk about what it means to be judged “by the content of our character.”
We will briefly discuss Thomas Lickona’s, Educating for Character: How Our Schools Can Teach Respect and Responsibility, and suggest how it requires supplementation from the resources of the gospel of Jesus Christ. We will present Jesus as a competitor in the field of moral theory.
The question posed to me for this session really has to do with whether or not—and how—we can measure, or accurately assess, moral and spiritual development. We are especially interested in ‘measuring’ such development as a result of the context and training on Christian campuses. Some fairly lavish promises are made by spokespeople for our various schools. How can we be held accountable, by ourselves and others, for the outcomes which we promise and hope for? How do we know which outcomes have occurred and why they have occurred?
In speaking of “matters of the heart” we are speaking of character. We are not just interested in actions and declared intentions, or even particular choices. We are, rather, looking at the nature and dynamics of the ‘hidden’ aspects of the self or of the human being as a whole. We are looking at the reliable sources of actions. That is what character means. In order to bring this before us, see the two diagrams from Renovation of the Heart below.
Let us take as a plausible hypothesis at the outset that it is possible to know what the character of an individual is, and to know how it may have changed over a period of time, and why it changed in the way it did. Perhaps it is difficult to do, and easy to get it wrong. But it is fairly obvious in some cases, from reasons that can be given and verified, that some people are self-absorbed, hard-hearted, dominated by lust, have no regard for God, or are deceitful, etc. Or the moral and spiritual opposites. We can assess Growth in Christlikeness (the stages or levels of spiritual formation in Christlikeness), and may be able to determine why and how that growth occur.
We will take Christian “spiritual formation” to be the process through which the individual increasingly comes to resemble Christ in all of the essential dimensions of the self seen in the diagrams. Spiritual formation is not just a matter of increasing “will power” or of greater inspiration in the moment of need. To direct the person steadily toward the good, the “heart” (will, human spirit) requires support from every essential dimension of the self. These too must be transformed for character to be established.
Of course Christians do constantly evaluate themselves and others as to “spirituality” and moral character anyway. Often because we simply have to—for purposes of placing people in positions of responsibility and evaluating their performance. Or because we enjoy putting people in their place (at least in our own minds) or enjoy gossiping. Or because of our own sense of need to change. Often this is done in uninformed, biased, haphazard and harmful ways. But that is not necessary. It can be done in ways that are intelligent, biblical, helpful and compassionate—even if that is not the usual case now.
It should be noted that it is now fashionable in some professional circles to disown character evaluations, and to even hold that such evaluations are immoral. Such evaluations are thought to be non-objective, arrogant, and hurtful to feelings—and feelings are sacred. But this just drives such evaluations underground, for they are unavoidable. We have to make responsible judgments about what people will be likely to do, and this cannot be done without assessments of character.
The setting of evaluation is absolutely crucial if it is to be effective, accurate and helpful; and it must be done in a communal or at least non-individualistic setting. Here we are very specifically going to be talking about the setting of an explicitly Christian community such as is represented by the public discourse of a Christian school. For such a setting there will need to be:
This much, then, on the setting of assessment programs and procedures. It is crucial to say that if 1 - 4 above are not clearly understood and heartily accepted and communicated by the campus leaders—those who determine policy and practice and preside over its execution—then we should not proceed with serious efforts at assessment of “matters of the heart.” It would be ineffectual and do more harm than good. Of course 1 - 4 does not have to be totally worked out before you start some serious assessment. But the clear and clearly understood intent on the part of the school must be there.
What are we testing for? This is something we must be very clear about. And we must be very sure that we are not just testing for conformity to the particular “faith and practice” that distinguishes the school. We will be strongly tempted to do that. So here we will come up against tough theological issues.
Now how do you test for the character of love thus understood? Remember, we are primarily helping the individual subject understand where they are and where they are going.
Certainly actions are indicative of something, and must be noted, but it would never be appropriate to simply draw conclusions from an act that love is or is not the source. (I Cor. 13:1-3) Patterns of action over time and in diverse situations are much better indications of character, and tracking these can be illuminative of the state and of changes of the “heart.” The individual can learn much by thoughtful and prayerful interpretations of their patterns of action.
On the assumption that the evaluation is going to be primarily self-assessment, carefully crafted questionnaires can be used to help the subject understand where they are and, possibly, what’s going on in their trajectory through life. Such a questionnaire might be repeated at intervals (say at the end of the Spring semester or quarter), possibly revised in ways more aptly suited to show progress or lack thereof in specific dimensions of character. The results should be discussed with the subject in at least one interview, soon after its completion: an interview conducted in the manner of a spiritual director. Perhaps further personal interactions will seem advisable at that point, and could be suggested.
With respect to the questionnaire used, there are several available. The best one available at this point in time, in my very non-expert opinion, is The Christian Life Profile, developed in a local church context by Randy Frazee and some of his associates.
On the basis of the questionnaire and interview the subject can be directed on how to deal with specific issues: e.g., fear (of various things) cheating, sexual issues, anger and so forth. Assessment would have to go hand in hand with teaching. There should be good public teaching on campus that helps them understand why they fail, and what they can do to change the causes of the failure. Understanding and use of spiritual disciplines is vital for helping people change, and the keeping of a journal on problems and progress will be vital both to teaching and to assessment. It would itself indicate some growth. Intention to grow must be assisted by the willingness to implement means of change in all dimensions of the self, but especially in the thought life. What is constantly before the mind? A journal can be very useful in tracking this and leading to change.
Of course in progression in Christlikeness the individual increasingly is holistically preoccupied by the good, and not with avoidance of evil. This comes through the transformation of each dimension of the self. Evil becomes less and less a thing of interest, less and less before the mind, and temptation therefore is more and more routinely and simply avoided. This can be helpfully tracked by journal keeping, which might then be a subject of discussion with the individual. Just tracking can have an immense effect for spiritual growth, and it lays a foundation for meaningful discussion, or even intervention with means of change.
The combination of (i) observation of patterns of actions, (ii) questionnaires with (iii) individual guidance/interaction, and (iv) journaling can yield the data for reliable assessment of how things are (or are not) changing on the inside of the personal and social life, on campus and off. In particular, they can reveal the degree to which the individual is living in the great commandment in every dimension of their personality.
A major issue, now, will be what records are kept, if any, and how they might be used. For example, would a spiritual director type write up something (per semester, year, or at completion)? Would it be kept on file or given to the student, or made entirely optional to the student as to what would be done with it? Or would nothing at all be recorded? Or perhaps the subject him or herself should write up something and decide what should be done with it. Needless to say, these matters would have to be handled very carefully, and policies and practices developed tentatively and slowly over the years. They would certainly have to be a part of the explicit understandings of those who enter the community at whatever level.
It would be possible, in a carefully handled program, for the university or college’s self-understanding and accountability, to check the substance of their claims to developing character and spiritual growth in their students by keeping records of what is actually happening (according to the above kinds of data) that are totally purged of reference to any individuals or sub-groups of individuals. This would serve the school’s need to direct policy wisely and know to what extent their claims about impacting character are true.
I close by expressing my strong belief that “matters of the heart” can be measured, or at least assessed with substantial accuracy, and, furthermore, that we should seriously undertake it. Certainly it can only be done on the basis of a profound understanding and teaching of the spiritual life in Christ.
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